The revised and expanded Data and Analytics Dictionary

The Data and Analytics Dictionary

Since its launch in August of this year, the Data and Analytics Dictionary has received a welcome amount of attention with various people on different social media platforms praising its usefulness, particularly as an introduction to the area. A number of people have made helpful suggestions for new entries or improvements to existing ones. I have also been rounding out the content with some more terms relating to each of Data Governance, Big Data and Data Warehousing. As a result, The Dictionary now has over 80 main entries (not including ones that simply refer the reader to another entry, such as Linear Regression, which redirects to Model).

The most recently added entries are as follows:

  1. Anomaly Detection
  2. Behavioural Analytics
  3. Complex Event Processing
  4. Data Discovery
  5. Data Ingestion
  6. Data Integration
  7. Data Migration
  8. Data Modelling
  9. Data Privacy
  10. Data Repository
  11. Data Virtualisation
  12. Deep Learning
  13. Flink
  14. Hive
  15. Information Security
  16. Metadata
  17. Multidimensional Approach
  18. Natural Language Processing (NLP)
  19. On-line Transaction Processing
  20. Operational Data Store (ODS)
  21. Pig
  22. Table
  23. Sentiment Analysis
  24. Text Analytics
  25. View

It is my intention to continue to revise this resource. Adding some more detail about Machine Learning and related areas is probably the next focus.

As ever, ideas for what to include next would be more than welcome (any suggestions used will also be acknowledged).


From:, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary


A truth universally acknowledged…

£10 note

  “It is a truth universally acknowledged, that an organisation in possession of some data, must be in want of a Chief Data Officer”

— Growth and Governance, by Jane Austen (1813) [1]


I wrote about a theoretical job description for a Chief Data Officer back in November 2015 [2]. While I have been on “paternity leave” following the birth of our second daughter, a couple of genuine CDO job specs landed in my inbox. While unable to respond for the aforementioned reasons, I did leaf through the documents. Something immediately struck me; they were essentially wish-lists covering a number of data-related fields, rather than a description of what a CDO might actually do. Clearly I’m not going to cite the actual text here, but the following is representative of what appeared in both requirement lists:

CDO wishlist

Mandatory Requirements:

Highly Desirable Requirements:

  • PhD in Mathematics or a numerical science (with a strong record of highly-cited publications)
  • MBA from a top-tier Business School
  • TOGAF certification
  • PRINCE2 and Agile Practitioner
  • Invulnerability and X-ray vision [3]
  • Mastery of the lesser incantations and a cloak of invisibility [3]
  • High midi-chlorian reading [3]
  • Full, clean driving licence

Your common, all-garden CDO

The above list may have descended into farce towards the end, but I would argue that the problems started to occur much earlier. The above is not a description of what is required to be a successful CDO, it’s a description of a Swiss Army Knife. There is also the minor practical point that, out of a World population of around 7.5 billion, there may well be no one who ticks all the boxes [4].

Let’s make the fallacy of this type of job description clearer by considering what a simmilar approach would look like if applied to what is generally the most senior role in an organisation, the CEO. Whoever drafted the above list of requirements would probably characterise a CEO as follows:

  • The best salesperson in the organisation
  • The best accountant in the organisation
  • The best M&A person in the organisation
  • The best customer service operative in the organisation
  • The best facilities manager in the organisation
  • The best janitor in the organisation
  • The best purchasing clerk in the organisation
  • The best lawyer in the organisation
  • The best programmer in the organisation
  • The best marketer in the organisation
  • The best product developer in the organisation
  • The best HR person in the organisation, etc., etc., …

Of course a CEO needs to be none of the above, they need to be a superlative leader who is expert at running an organisation (even then, they may focus on plotting the way forward and leave the day to day running to others). For the avoidance of doubt, I am not saying that a CEO requires no domain knowledge and has no expertise, they would need both, however they don’t have to know every aspect of company operations better than the people who do it.

The same argument applies to CDOs. Domain knowledge probably should span most of what is in the job description (save for maybe the three items with footnotes), but knowledge is different to expertise. As CDOs don’t grow on trees, they will most likely be experts in one or a few of the areas cited, but not all of them. Successful CDOs will know enough to be able to talk to people in the areas where they are not experts. They will have to be competent at hiring experts in every area of a CDO’s purview. But they do not have to be able to do the job of every data-centric staff member better than the person could do themselves. Even if you could identify such a CDO, they would probably lose their best staff very quickly due to micromanagement.

Conducting the data orchestra

A CDO has to be a conductor of both the data function orchestra and of the use of data in the wider organisation. This is a talent in itself. An internationally renowned conductor may have previously been a violinist, but it is unlikely they were also a flautist and a percussionist. They do however need to be able to tell whether or not the second trumpeter is any good or not; this is not the same as being able to play the trumpet yourself of course. The conductor’s key skill is in managing the efforts of a large group of people to create a cohesive – and harmonious – whole.

The CDO is of course still a relatively new role in mainstream organisations [5]. Perhaps these job descriptions will become more realistic as the role becomes more familiar. It is to be hoped so, else many a search for a new CDO will end in disappointment.

Having twisted her text to my own purposes at the beginning of this article, I will leave the last words to Jane Austen:

  “A scheme of which every part promises delight, can never be successful; and general disappointment is only warded off by the defence of some little peculiar vexation.”

— Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen (1813)



Well if a production company can get away with Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, then I feel I am on reasonably solid ground here with this title.

I also seem to be riffing on JA rather a lot at present, I used Rationality and Reality as the title of one of the chapters in my [as yet unfinished] Mathematical book, Glimpses of Symmetry.

Wanted – Chief Data Officer.
Most readers will immediately spot the obvious mistake here. Of course all three of these requirements should be mandatory.
To take just one example, gaining a PhD in a numerical science, a track record of highly-cited papers and also obtaining an MBA would take most people at least a few weeks of effort. Is it likely that such a person would next focus on a PRINCE2 or TOGAF qualification?
I discuss some elements of the emerging consensus on what a CDO should do in: 5 Themes from a Chief Data Officer Forum and 5 More Themes from a Chief Data Officer Forum.


From:, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary


The Data and Analytics Dictionary

The Data and Analytics Dictionary

I find myself frequently being asked questions around terminology in Data and Analytics and so thought that I would try to define some of the more commonly used phrases and words. My first attempt to do this can be viewed in a new page added to this site (this also appears in the site menu):

The Data and Analytics Dictionary

I plan to keep this up-to-date as the field continues to evolve.

I hope that my efforts to explain some concepts in my main area of specialism are both of interest and utility to readers. Any suggestions for new entries or comments on existing ones are more than welcome.


20 Risks that Beset Data Programmes

Data Programme Risks

This article draws extensively on elements of the framework I use to both highlight and manage risks on data programmes. It has its genesis in work that I did early in 2012 (but draws on experience from the years before this). I have tried to refresh the content since then to reflect new thinking and new developments in the data arena.

What are my motivations in publishing this article? Well I have both designed and implemented data and information programmes for over 17 years. In the majority of cases my programme work has been a case of executing a data strategy that I had developed myself [1]. While I have generally been able to steer these programmes to a successful outcome [2], there have been both bumps in the road and the occasional blind alley, requiring a U-turn and another direction to be selected. I have also been able to observe data programmes that ran in parallel to mine in different parts of various organisations. Finally, I have often been asked to come in and address issues with an existing data programme; something that appears to happens all too often. In short I have seen a lot of what works and what does not work. Having also run other types of programmes [3], I can also attest to data programmes being different. Failure to recognise this difference and thus approaching a data programme just like any other piece of work is one major cause of issues [4].

Before I get into my list proper, I wanted to pause to highlight a further couple of mistakes that I have seen made more than once; ones that are more generic in nature and thus don’t appear on my list of 20 risks. The first is to assume that the way that an organisation’s data is controlled and leveraged can be improved in a sustainable way by just kicking off a programme. What is more important in my experience is to establish a data function, which will then help with both the governance and exploitation of data. This data function, ideally sitting under a CDO, will of course want to initiate a range of projects, from improving data quality, to sprucing up reporting, to establishing better analytical capabilities. Best practice is to gather these activities into a programme, but things work best if the data function is established first, owns such a programme and actively partakes in its execution.

Data is for life...

As well as the issue of ongoing versus transitory accountability for data and the undoubted damage that poorly coordinated change programmes can inflict on data assets, another driver for first establishing a data function is that data needs will always be there. On the governance side, new systems will be built, bought and integrated, bringing new data challenges. On the analytical side, there will always be new questions to be answered, or old ones to be reevaluated. While data-centric efforts will generate many projects with start and end dates, the broad stream of data work continues on in a way that, for example, the implementation of a new B2C capability does not.

The second is to believe that you will add lasting value by outsourcing anything but targeted elements of your data programme. This is not to say that there is no place for such arrangements, which I have used myself many times, just that one of the lasting benefits of gimlet-like focus on data is the IP that is built up in the data team; IP that in my experience can be leveraged in many different and beneficial ways, becoming a major asset to the organisation [5].

Having made these introductory comments, let’s get on to the main list, which is divided into broadly chronological sections, relating to stages of the programme. The 10 risks which I believe are either most likely to materialise, or which will probably have the greatest impact are highlighted in pale yellow.
Up-front Risks

In the beginning

Risk Potential Impact
1. Not appreciating the size of work for both business and technology resources. Team is set up to fail – it is neither responsive enough to business needs (resulting in yet more “unofficial” repositories and additional fragmentation), nor is appropriate progress is made on its central objective.
2. Not establishing a dedicated team. The team never escapes from “the day job” or legacy / BAU issues; the past prevents the future from being built.
3. Not establishing a unified and collaborative team. Team is plagued by people pursuing their own agendas and trashing other people’s approaches, this consumes management time on non-value-added activities, leads to infighting and dissipates energy.
4. Staff lack skills and prior experience of data programmes. Time spent educating people rather than getting on with work. Sub-optimal functionality, slippages, later performance problems, higher ongoing support costs.
5. Not establishing an appropriate management / governance structure. Programme is not aligned with business needs, is not able to get necessary time with business users and cannot negotiate the inevitable obstacles that block its way. As a result, the programme gets “stuck in the mud”.
6. Failing to recognise ongoing local needs when centralising. Local business units do not have their pressing needs attended to and so lose confidence in the programme and instead go their own way. This leads to duplication of effort, increased costs and likely programme failure.

With risk 2 an analogy is trying to build a house in your spare time. If work can only be done in evenings or at the weekend, then this is going to take a long time. Nevertheless organisations too frequently expect data programmes to be absorbed in existing headcount and fitted in between people’s day jobs.

We can we extend the building metaphor to cover risk 4. If you are going to build your own house, it would help that you understand carpentry, plumbing, electricals and brick-laying and also have a grasp on the design fundamentals of how to create a structure that will withstand wind rain and snow. Too often companies embark on data programmes with staff who have a bit of a background in reporting or some related area and with managers who have never been involved in a data programme before. This is clearly a recipe for disaster.

Risk 5 reminds us that governance is also important – both to ensure that the programme stays focussed on business needs and also to help the team to negotiate the inevitable obstacles. This comes back to a successful data programme needing to be more than just a technology project.
Programme Execution Risks

Programme execution

Risk Potential Impact
7. Poor programme management. The programme loses direction. Time is expended on non-core issues. Milestones are missed. Expenditure escalates beyond budget.
8. Poor programme communication. Stakeholders have no idea what is happening [6]. The programme is viewed as out of touch / not pertinent to business issues. Steering does not understand what is being done or why. Prospective users have no interest in the programme.
9. Big Bang approach. Too much time goes by without any value being created. The eventual Big Bang is instead a damp squib. Large sums of money are spent without any benefits.
10. Endless search for the perfect solution / adherence to overly theoretical approaches. Programme constantly polishes rocks rather than delivering. Data models reflect academic purity rather than real-world performance and maintenance needs.
11. Lack of focus on interim deliverables. Business units become frustrated and seek alternative ways to meet their pressing needs. This leads to greater fragmentation and reputational damage to programme.
12. Insufficient time spent understanding source system data and how data is transformed as it flows between systems. Data capabilities that do not reflect business transactions with fidelity. There is inconsistency with reports directly drawn from source systems. Reconciliation issues arise (see next point).
13. Poor reconciliation. If analytical capabilities do not tell a consistent story, they will not be credible and will not be used.
14. Strong approach to data quality. Data facilities are seen as inaccurate because of poor data going into them. Data facilities do not match actual business events due to either massaging of data or exclusion of transactions with invalid attributes.

Probably the single most common cause of failure with data programmes – and indeed or ERP projects and acquisitions and any other type of complex endeavour – is risk 7, poor programme management. Not only do programme managers have to be competent, they should also be steeped in data matters and have a good grasp of the factors that differentiate data programmes from more general work.

Relating to the other highlighted risks in this section, the programme could spend two years doing work without surfacing anything much and then, when they do make their first delivery, this is a dismal failure. In the same vein, exclusive focus on strategic capabilities could prevent attention being paid to pressing business needs. At the other end of the spectrum, interim deliveries could spiral out of control, consuming all of the data team’s time and meaning that the strategic objective is never reached. A better approach is that targeted and prioritised interims help to address pressing business needs, but also inform more strategic work. From the other perspective, progress on strategic work-streams should be leveraged whenever it can be, perhaps in less functional manners that the eventual solution, but good enough and also helping to make sure that the final deliveries are spot on [7].
User Requirement Risks

Dear Santa

Risk Potential Impact
15. Not enough up-front focus on understanding key business decisions and the information necessary to take them. Analytic capabilities do not focus on what people want or need, leading to poor adoption and benefits not being achieved.
16. In the absence of the above, the programme becoming a technology-driven one. The business gets what IT or Change think that they need, not what is actually needed. There is more focus on shiny toys than on actionable information. The programme forgets the needs of its customers.
17. A focus on replicating what the organisation already has but in better tools, rather than creating what it wants. Beautiful data visualisations that tell you close to nothing. Long lists of existing reports with their fields cross-referenced to each other and a new solution that is essentially the lowest common denominator of what is already in place; a step backwards.

The other most common reasons for data programme failure is a lack of focus on user needs and insufficient time spent with business people to ensure that systems reflect their requirements [8].
Integration Risk


Risk Potential Impact
18. Lack of leverage of new data capabilities in front-end / digital systems. These systems are less effective. The data team is jealous about its capabilities being the only way that users should get information, rather than adopting a more pragmatic and value-added approach.

It is important for the data team to realise that their work, however important, is just one part of driving a business forward. Opportunities to improve other system facilities by the leverage of new data structures should be taken wherever possible.
Deployment Risks


Risk Potential Impact
19. Education is an afterthought, training is technology- rather than business-focused. People neither understand the capabilities of new analytical tools, nor how to use them to derive business value. Again this leads to poor adoption and little return on investment.
20. Declaring success after initial implementation and training. Without continuing to water the immature roots, the plant withers. Early adoption rates fall and people return to how they were getting information pre-launch. This means that the benefits of the programme not realised.

Finally excellent technical work needs to be complemented with equal attention to business-focussed education, training using real-life scenarios and assiduous follow up. These things will make or break the programme [9].

Of course I don’t claim that the above list is exhaustive. You could successfully mitigate all of the above risks on your data programme, but still get sunk by some other unforeseen problem arising. There is a need to be flexible and to adapt to both events and how your organisation operates; there are no guarantees and no foolproof recipes for success [10].

My recommendation to data professionals is to develop your own approach to risk management based on your own experience, your own style and the culture within which you are operating. If just a few of the items on my list of risks can be usefully amalgamated into this, then I will feel that this article has served its purpose. If you are embarking on a data programme, maybe your first one, then be warned that these are hard and your reserves of perseverance will be tested. I’d suggest leveraging whatever tools you can find in trying to forge ahead.

It is also maybe worth noting that, somewhat contrary to my point that data programmes are different, a few of the risks that I highlight above could be tweaked to apply to more general programmes as well. Hopefully the things that I have learnt over the last couple of decades of running data programmes will be something that can be of assistance to you in your own work.


For my thoughts on developing data (or interchangeably) information strategies see:

  1. Forming an Information Strategy: Part I – General Strategy
  2. Forming an Information Strategy: Part II – Situational Analysis and
  3. Forming an Information Strategy: Part III – Completing the Strategy

or the CliffsNotes versions of these on LinkedIn:

  1. Information Strategy: 1) General Strategy
  2. Information Strategy: 2) Situational Analysis and
  3. Information Strategy: 3) Completing the Strategy
Indeed sometimes an award-winning one.
An abridged list would include:

  • ERP design, development and implementation
  • ERP selection and implementation
  • CRM design, development and implementation
  • CRM selection and implementation
  • Integration of acquired companies
  • Outsourcing of systems maintenance and support
For an examination of this area you can start with A more appropriate metaphor for Business Intelligence projects. While written back in 2008-9 the content of this article is as pertinent today as it was back then.
I cover this area in greater detail in Is outsourcing business intelligence a good idea?

Probably a bad idea to make this stakeholder unhappy (see also Themes from a Chief Data Officer Forum – the 180 day perspective, note [3]).

See Vision vs Pragmatism, Holistic vs Incremental approaches to BI and Tactical Meandering for further background on this area.
This area is treated in the strategy articles appearing in note [1] above. In addition, some potential approaches to elements of effective requirements gathering are presented in Scaling-up Performance Management and Developing an international BI strategy.
Of pertinence here is my trilogy on the cultural transformation aspects of information programmes:

  1. Marketing Change
  2. Education and cultural transformation
  3. Sustaining Cultural Change
Something I stress forcibly in Recipes for Success?



The Chief Data Officer “Sweet Spot”

CDO "sweet spot"

I verbally “scribbled” something quite like the exhibit above recently in conversation with a longstanding professional associate. This was while we were discussing where the CDO role currently sat in some organisations and his or her span of responsibilities. We agreed that – at least in some cases – the role was defined sub-optimally with reference to the axes in my virtual diagram.

This discussion reminded me that I was overdue a piece commenting on November’s IRM(UK) CDO Executive Forum; the third in a sequence that I have covered in these pages [1], [2]. In previous CDO Exec Forum articles, I have focussed mainly on the content of the day’s discussions. Here I’m going to be more general and bring in themes from the parent event; IRM(UK) Enterprise Data / Business Intelligence 2016. However I will later return to a theme central to the Exec Forum itself; the one that is captured in the graphic at the head of this article.

As well as attending the CDO Forum, I was speaking at the umbrella event. The title of my talk was Data Management, Analytics, People: An Eternal Golden Braid [3].

Data Management, Analytics, People: An Eternal Golden Braid

The real book, whose title I had plagiarised, is Gödel, Escher and Bach, an Eternal Golden braid, by Pulitzer-winning American Author and doyen of 1970s pop-science books, Douglas R. Hofstadter [4]. This book, which I read in my youth, explores concepts in consciousness, both organic and machine-based, and their relation to recursion and self-reference. The author argued that these themes were major elements of the work of each of Austrian Mathematician Kurt Gödel (best known for his two incompleteness theorems), Dutch graphic artist Maurits Cornelis Escher (whose almost plausible, but nevertheless impossible buildings and constantly metamorphosing shapes adorn both art galleries and college dorms alike) and German composer Johann Sebastian Bach (revered for both the beauty and mathematical elegance of his pieces, particularly those for keyboard instruments). In an age where Machine Learning and other Artificial Intelligence techniques are moving into the mainstream – or at least on to our Smartphones – I’d recommend this book to anyone who has not had the pleasure of reading it.

In my talk, I didn’t get into anything as metaphysical as Hofstadter’s essays that intertwine patterns in Mathematics, Art and Music, but maybe some of the spirit of his book rubbed off on my much lesser musings. In any case, I felt that my session was well-received and one particular piece of post-presentation validation had me feeling rather like these guys for the rest of the day:

The cast and author / director of Serenity at Comic Con

What happened was that a longstanding internet contact [5] sought me out and commended me on both my talk and the prescience of my July 2009 article, Is the time ripe for appointing a Chief Business Intelligence Officer? He argued convincingly that this foreshadowed the emergence of the Chief Data Officer. While it is an inconvenient truth that Visa International had a CDO eight years earlier than my article appeared, on re-reading it, I was forced to acknowledge that there was some truth in his assertion.

To return to the matter in hand, one point that I made during my talk was that Analytics and Data Management are two sides of the same coin and that both benefit from being part of the same unitary management structure. By this I mean each area reporting into an Executive who has a strong grasp of what they do, rather than to a general manager. More specifically, I would see Data Compliance work and Data Synthesis work each being the responsibility of a CDO who has experience in both areas.

It may seem that crafting and implementing data policies is a million miles from data visualisation and machine learning, but to anyone with a background in the field, they are much more strongly related. Indeed, if managed well (which is often the main issue), they should be mutually reinforcing. Thus an insightful model can support business decision-making, but its authors would generally be well-advised to point out any areas in which their work could be improved by better data quality. Efforts to achieve the latter then both improve the usefulness of the model and help make the case for further work on data remediation; a virtuous circle.

CDO "sweet spot" vertical axis

Here we get back to the vertical axis in my initial diagram. In many organisations, the CDO can find him or herself at the extremities. Particularly in Financial Services, an industry which has been exposed to more new regulation than many in recent years, it is not unusual for CDOs to have a Risk or Compliance background. While this is very helpful in areas such as Governance, it is less of an asset when looking to leverage data to drive commercial advantage.

Symmetrically, if a rookie CDO was a Data Scientist who then progressed to running teams of Data Scientists, they will have a wealth of detailed knowledge to fall back on when looking to guide business decisions, but less familiarity with the – sometimes apparently thankless, and generally very arduous – task of sorting out problems in data landscapes.

Despite this, it is not uncommon to see CDOs who have a background in just one of these two complementary areas. If this is the case, then the analytics expert will have to learn bureaucratic and programme skills as quickly as they can and the governance guru will need to expand their horizons to understand the basics of statistical modelling and the presentation of information in easily digestible formats. It is probably fair to say that the journey to the centre is somewhat perilous when either extremity is the starting point.

CDO "sweet spot" vertical axis

Let’s now think about the second and horizontal axis. In some organisations, a newly appointed CDO will be freshly emerged from the ranks of IT (in some they may still report to the CIO, though this is becoming more of an anomaly with each passing year). As someone whose heritage is in IT (though also from very early on with a commercial dimension) I understand that there are benefits to such a career path, not least an in-depth understanding of at least some of the technologies employed, or that need to be employed. However a technology master who is also a business neophyte is unlikely to set the world alight as a newly-minted CDO. Such people will need to acquire new skills, but the learning curve is steep.

To consider the other extreme of this axis, it is undeniable that a CDO organisation will need to undertake both technical and technological work (or at least to guide this in other departments). Therefore, while an in-depth understanding of a business, its products, markets, customers and competitors will be of great advantage to a new CDO, without at least a reasonable degree of technical knowledge, they may struggle to connect with some members of their team; they may not be able to immediately grasp what technology tasks are essential and which are not; and they may not be able to paint an accurate picture of what good looks like in the data arena. Once more rapid assimilation of new information and equally rapid acquisition of new skills will be called for.

I couldn't find a good image of a cricket bat and so this will have to do

At this point it will be pretty obvious that my central point here is that the “sweet spot” for a CDO, the place where they can have greatest impact on an organisation and deliver the greatest value, is at the centre point of both of these axes. When I was talking to my friend about this, we agreed that one of the reasons why not many CDOs sit precisely at this nexus is because there are few people with equal (or at least balanced) expertise in the business and technology fields; few people who understand both data synthesis and data compliance equally well; and vanishingly few who sit in the centre of both of these ranges.

Perhaps these facts would also have been apparent from revewing the CDO job description I posted back in November 2015 as part of Wanted – Chief Data Officer. However, as always, a picture paints a thousand words and I rather like the compass-like exhibit I have come up with. Hopefully it conveys a similar message more rapidly and more viscerally.

To bring things back to the IRM(UK) CDO Executive Forum, I felt that issues around where delegates sat on my CDO “sweet spot” diagram (or more pertinently where they felt that they should sit) were a sub-text to many of our discussions. It is worth recalling that the mainstream CDO is still an emergent role and a degree of confusion around what they do, how they do it and where they sit in organisations is inevitable. All CxO roles (with the possible exception of the CEO) have gone through similar journeys. It is probably instructive to contrast the duties of a Chief Risk Officer before 2008 with the nature and scope of their responsibilities now. It is my opinion that the CDO role (and individual CDOs) will travel an analogous path and eventually also settle down to a generally accepted set of accountabilities.

In the meantime, if your organisation is lucky enough to have hired one of the small band of people whose experience and expertise already place them in the CDO “sweet spot”, then you are indeed fortunate. If not, then not all is lost, but be prepared for your new CDO to do a lot of learning on the job before they too can join the rather exclusive club of fully rounded CDOs.


As an erstwhile Mathematician, I’ve never seen a framework that I didn’t want to generalise. It occurs to me and – I assume – will also occur to many readers that the North / South and East / West diagram I have created could be made even more compass-like by the addition of North East / South West and North West / South East axes, with our idealised CDO sitting in the middle of these spectra as well [6].

Readers can debate amongst themselves what the extremities of these other dimensions might be. I’ll suggest just a couple: “Change” and “Business as Usual”. Given how organisations seem to have evolved in recent years, it is often unfortunately a case of never the twain shall meet with these two areas. However a good CDO will need to be adept at both and, from personal experience, I would argue that mastery of one does not exclude mastery of the other.


See each of:

The main reasons for delay were a house move and a succession of illnesses in my family – me included – so I’m going to give myself a pass.
The sub-title was A Metaphorical Fugue On The Data ⇨ Information ⇨ Insight ⇨ Action Journey in The Spirt Of Douglas R. Hofstadter, which points to the inspiration behind my talk rather more explicity.
Douglas R. Hofstadter is the son of Nobel-wining physicist Robert Hofstadter. Prize-winning clearly runs in the Hofstadter family, much as with the Braggs, Bohrs, Curies, Euler-Chelpins, Kornbergs, Siegbahns, Tinbergens and Thomsons.
I am omitting any names or other references to save his blushes.
I could have gone for three or four dimensional Cartesian coordinates as well I realise, but sometimes (very rarely it has to be said) you can have too much Mathematics.



Curiouser and Curiouser – The Limits of Brexit Voting Analysis

An original illustration from Charles Lutwidge Dodgson's seminal work would have been better, but sadly none such seems to be extant
Down the Rabbit-hole

When I posted my Brexit infographic reflecting the age of voters an obvious extension was to add an indication of the number of people in each age bracket who did not vote as well as those who did. This seemed a relatively straightforward task, but actually proved to be rather troublesome (this may be an example of British understatement). Maybe the caution I gave about statistical methods having a large impact on statistical outcomes in An Inconvenient Truth should have led me to expect such issues. In any case, I thought that it would be instructive to talk about the problems I stumbled across and to – once again – emphasise the perils of over-extending statistical models.

Brexit ages infographic
Click to download a larger PDF version in a new window.

Regular readers will recall that my Brexit Infographic (reproduced above) leveraged data from an earlier article, A Tale of two [Brexit] Data Visualisations. As cited in this article, the numbers used were from two sources:

  1. The UK Electoral Commission – I got the overall voting numbers from here.
  2. Lord Ashcroft’s Poling organisation – I got the estimated distribution of votes by age group from here.

In the notes section of A Tale of two [Brexit] Data Visualisations I [prophetically] stated that the breakdown of voting by age group was just an estimate. Based on what I have discovered since, I’m rather glad that I made this caveat explicit.
The Pool of Tears

In order to work out the number of people in each age bracket who did not vote, an obvious starting point would be the overall electorate, which the UK Electoral Commission stated as being 46,500,001. As we know that 33,551,983 people voted (an actual figure rather than an estimate), then this is where the turnout percentage of 72.2% (actually 72.1548%) came from (33,551,983 / 45,500,001).

A clarifying note, the electorate figures above refer to people who are eligible to vote. Specifically, in order to vote in the UK Referendum, people had to meet the following eligibility criteria (again drawn from the UK Electoral Commission):

To be eligible to vote in the EU Referendum, you must be:

  • A British or Irish citizen living in the UK, or
  • A Commonwealth citizen living in the UK who has leave to remain in the UK or who does not require leave to remain in the UK, or
  • A British citizen living overseas who has been registered to vote in the UK in the last 15 years, or
  • An Irish citizen living overseas who was born in Northern Ireland and who has been registered to vote in Northern Ireland in the last 15 years.

EU citizens are not eligible to vote in the EU Referendum unless they also meet the eligibility criteria above.

So far, so simple. The next thing I needed to know was how the electorate was split by age. This is where we begin to run into problems. One place to start is the actual population of the UK as at the last census (2011). This is as follows:

Ages (years) Population % of total
0–4 3,914,000 6.2
5–9 3,517,000 5.6
10–14 3,670,000 5.8
15–19 3,997,000 6.3
20–24 4,297,000 6.8
25–29 4,307,000 6.8
30–34 4,126,000 6.5
35–39 4,194,000 6.6
40–44 4,626,000 7.3
45–49 4,643,000 7.3
50–54 4,095,000 6.5
55–59 3,614,000 5.7
60–64 3,807,000 6.0
65–69 3,017,000 4.8
70–74 2,463,000 3.9
75–79 2,006,000 3.2
80–84 1,496,000 2.4
85–89 918,000 1.5
90+ 476,000 0.8
Total 63,183,000 100.0

If I roll up the above figures to create the same age groups as in the Ashcroft analysis (something that requires splitting the 15-19 range, which I have assumed can be done uniformly), I get:

Ages (years) Population % of total
0-17 13,499,200 21.4
18-24 5,895,800 9.3
25-34 8,433,000 13.3
35-44 8,820,000 14.0
45-54 8,738,000 13.8
55-64 7,421,000 11.7
65+ 10,376,000 16.4
Total 63,183,000 100.0

The UK Government isn’t interested in the views of people under 18[citation needed], so eliminating this row we get:

Ages (years) Population % of total
18-24 5,895,800 11.9
25-34 8,433,000 17.0
35-44 8,820,000 17.8
45-54 8,738,000 17.6
55-64 7,421,000 14.9
65+ 10,376,000 20.9
Total 49,683,800 100.0

As mentioned, the above figures are from 2011 and the UK population has grown since then. Web-site WorldOMeters offers an extrapolated population of 65,124,383 for the UK in 2016 (this is as at 12th July 2016; if extrapolation and estimates make you queasy, I’d suggest closing this article now!). I’m going to use a rounder figure of 65,125,000 people; there is no point pretending that precision exists where it clearly doesn’t. Making the assumption that such growth is uniform across all age groups (please refer to my previous bracketed comment!), then the above exhibit can also be extrapolated to give us:

Ages (years) Population % of total
18-24 6,077,014 11.9
25-34 8,692,198 17.0
35-44 9,091,093 17.8
45-54 9,006,572 17.6
55-64 7,649,093 14.9
65+ 10,694,918 20.9
Total 51,210,887 100.0

Looking Glass House

So our – somewhat fabricated – figure for the 18+ UK population in 2016 is 51,210,887, let’s just call this 51,200,000. As at the beginning of this article the electorate for the 2016 UK Referendum was 45,500,000 (dropping off the 1 person with apologies to him or her). The difference is explicable based on the eligibility criteria quoted above. I now have a rough age group break down of the 51.2 million population, how best to apply this to the 45.5 million electorate?

I’ll park this question for the moment and instead look to calculate a different figure. Based on the Ashcroft model, what percentage of the UK population (i.e. the 51.2 million) voted in each age group? We can work this one out without many complications as follows:

Ages (years)
Turnout %
18-24 6,077,014 1,701,067 28.0
25-34 8,692,198 4,319,136 49.7
35-44 9,091,093 5,656,658 62.2
45-54 9,006,572 6,535,678 72.6
55-64 7,649,093 7,251,916 94.8
65+ 10,694,918 8,087,528 75.6
Total 51,210,887 33,551,983 65.5

(B) = Size of each age group in the Ashcroft sample as a percentage multiplied by the total number of people voting (see A Tale of two [Brexit] Data Visualisations).
Remember here that actual turnout figures have electorate as the denominator, not population. As the electorate is less than the population, this means that all of the turnout percentages should actually be higher than the ones calculated (e.g. the overall turnout with respect to electorate is 72.2% whereas my calculated turnout with respect to population is 65.5%). So given this, how to explain the 94.8% turnout of 55-64 year olds? To be sure this group does reliably turn out to vote, but did essentially all of them (remembering that the figures in the above table are too low) really vote in the referendum? This seems less than credible.

The turnout for 55-64 year olds in the 2015 General Election has been estimated at 77%, based on an overall turnout of 66.1% (web-site UK Political Info; once more these figures will have been created based on techniques similar to the ones I am using here). If we assume a uniform uplift across age ranges (that “assume” word again!) then one might deduce that an increase in overall turnout from 66.1% to 72.2%, might lead to the turnout in the 55-64 age bracket increasing from 77% to 84%. 84% turnout is still very high, but it is at least feasible; close to 100% turnout in from this age group seems beyond the realms of likelihood.

So what has gone wrong? Well so far the only culprit I can think of is the distribution of voting by age group in the Ashcroft poll. To be clear here, I’m not accusing Lord Ashcroft and his team of sloppy work. Instead I’m calling out that the way that I have extrapolated their figures may not be sustainable. Indeed, if my extrapolation is valid, this would imply that the Ashcroft model over estimated the proportion of 55-64 year olds voting. Thus it must have underestimated the proportion of voters in some other age group. Putting aside the likely fact that I have probably used their figures in an unintended manner, could it be that the much-maligned turnout of younger people has been misrepresented?

To test the validity of this hypothesis, I turned to a later poll by Omnium. To be sure this was based on a sample size of around 2,000 as opposed to Ashcroft’s 12,000, but it does paint a significantly different picture. Their distribution of voter turnout by age group was as follows:

Ages (years) Turnout %
18-24 64
25-39 65
40-54 66
55-64 74
65+ 90

I have to say that the Omnium age groups are a bit idiosyncratic, so I have taken advantage of the fact that the figures for 25-54 are essentially the same to create a schedule that matches the Ashcroft groups as follows:

Ages (years) Turnout %
18-24 64
25-34 65
35-44 65
45-54 65
55-64 74
65+ 90

The Omnium model suggests that younger voters may have turned out in greater numbers than might be thought based on the Ashcroft data. In turn this would suggest that a much greater percentage of 18-24 year olds turned out for the Referendum (64%) than for the last General Election (43%); contrast this with an estimated 18-24 turnout figure of 47% based on the just increase in turnout between the General Election and the Referendum. The Omnium estimates do still however recognise that turnout was still greater in the 55+ brackets, which supports the pattern seen in other elections.
Humpty Dumpty

While it may well be that the Leave / Remain splits based on the Ashcroft figures are reasonable, I’m less convinced that extrapolating these same figures to make claims about actual voting numbers by age group (as I have done) is tenable. Perhaps it would be better to view each age cohort as a mini sample to be treated independently. Based on the analysis above, I doubt that the turnout figures I have extrapolated from the Ashcroft breakdown by age group are robust. However, that is not the same as saying that the Ashcroft data is flawed, or that the Omnium figures are correct. Indeed the Omnium data (at least those elements published on their web-site) don’t include an analysis of whether the people in their sample voted Leave or Remain, so direct comparison is not going to be possible. Performing calculation gymnastics such as using the Omnium turnout for each age group in combination with the Ashcroft voting splits for Leave and Remain for the same age groups actually leads to a rather different Referendum result, so I’m not going to plunge further down this particular rabbit hole.

In summary, my supposedly simple trip to the destitution of an enhanced Brexit Infographic has proved unexpectedly arduous, winding and beset by troubles. These challenges have proved so great that I’ve abandoned the journey and will be instead heading for home.
Which dreamed it?

Based on my work so far, I have severe doubts about the accuracy of some of the age-based exhibits I have published (versions of which have also appeared on many web-sites, the BBC to offer just one example, scroll down to “How different age groups voted” and note that the percentages cited reconcile to mine). I believe that my logic and calculations are sound, but it seems that I am making too many assumptions about how I can leverage the Ashcroft data. After posting this article, I will accordingly go back and annotate each of my previous posts and link them to these later findings.

I think the broader lesson to be learnt is that estimates are just that, attempts (normally well-intentioned of course) to come up with figures where the actual numbers are not accessible. Sometimes this is a very useful – indeed indispensable – approach, sometimes it is less helpful. In either case estimation should always be approached with caution and the findings ideally sense-checked in the way that I have tried to do above.

Occam’s razor would suggest that when the stats tell you something that seems incredible, then 99 times out of 100 there is an error or inaccurate assumption buried somewhere in the model. This applies when you are creating the model yourself and doubly so where you are relying upon figures calculated by other people. In the latter case not only is there the risk of their figures being inaccurate, there is the incremental risk that you interpret them wrongly, or stretch their broader application to breaking point. I was probably guilty of one or more of the above sins in my earlier articles. I’d like my probable misstep to serve as a warning to other people when they too look to leverage statistics in new ways.

A further point is the most advanced concepts I have applied in my calculations above are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. If these basic operations – even in the hands of someone like me who is relatively familiar with them – can lead to the issues described above, just imagine what could result from the more complex mathematical techniques (e.g. ambition, distraction, uglification and derision) used by even entry-level data scientists. This perhaps suggests an apt aphorism: Caveat calculator!

Beware the Jabberwock, my son! // The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! // Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun // The frumious Bandersnatch!


Data Management as part of the Data to Action Journey

Data Information Insight Action (w700)

| Larger Version | Detailed and Annotated Version (as PDF) |

This brief article is actually the summation of considerable thought and reflects many elements that I covered in my last two pieces (5 Themes from a Chief Data Officer Forum and 5 More Themes from a Chief Data Officer Forum), in particular both the triangle I used as my previous Data Management visualisation and Peter Aiken’s original version, which he kindly allowed me to reproduce on this site (see here for more information about Peter).

What I began to think about was that both of these earlier exhibits (and indeed many that I have seen pertaining to Data Management and Data Governance) suggest that the discipline forms a solid foundation upon which other areas are built. While there is a lot of truth in this view, I have come round to thinking that Data Management may alternatively be thought of as actively taking part in a more dynamic process; specifically the same iterative journey from Data to Information to Insight to Action and back to Data again that I have referenced here several times before. I have looked to combine both the static, foundational elements of Data Management and the dynamic, process-centric ones in the diagram presented at the top of this article; a more detailed and annotated version of which is available to download as a PDF via the link above.

I have also introduced the alternative path from Data to Insight; the one that passes through Statistical Analysis. Data Management is equally critical to the success of this type of approach. I believe that the schematic suggests some of the fluidity that is a major part of effective Data Management in my experience. I also hope that the exhibit supports my assertion that Data Management is not an end in itself, but instead needs to be considered in terms of the outputs that it helps to generate. Pristine data is of little use to an organisation if it is not then exploited to form insights and drive actions. As ever, this need to drive action necessitates a focus on cultural transformation, an area that is covered in many other parts of this site.

This diagram also calls to mind the subject of where and how the roles of Chief Analytics Officer and Chief Data Officer intersect and whether indeed these should be separate roles at all. These are questions to which – as promised on several previous occasions – I will return to in future articles. For now, maybe my schematic can give some data and information practitioners a different way to view their craft and the contributions that it can make to organisational success.