# Offence, Defence and the Top Data Job

Football [1] has been in the news rather a lot of late; apparently there is some competition or other going on in Russia [2]. Presumably it was this that brought to my mind the analogy sometimes applied to the data arena of offence and defence [3]. Defence brings to mind Data Governance, Master Data Management and Data Quality. Offence suggests Data Science, Machine Learning and Analytics. This is an analogy I have briefly touched on in these pages before [4]; here I want to expand on it.

Rather than Association Football, it was however the American version that first crossed my mind. In Gridiron, there are of course wholly separate teams for each of offence, defence, kicking and receiving, each filled with specialists. I would be happy to learn from readers about any counterexamples, but I struggle to think of any other sport that is like this [5]. In each of Association Football, both types of Rugby, Australian Rules Football and indeed Basketball, Baseball (see previous note [5]) Volleyball, Hockey, Ice Hockey, Lacrosse, Polo, Water Polo and Handball, the same players form both the offence and defence. Of course this is probably due to them being a bit less stop-start than American Football, offence can turn into defence in a split-second in some of them.

To stick with Football (I’m going to drop “Association” from here on in), while players may be designated as goalkeepers, defenders, mid-fielders, wingers and attackers (strikers), any player may be called on to defend or attack at any time [6]. Star strikers may need to make desperate tackles. Defenders (who tend to be taller) will be called up to try to turn corner kicks into goals. Even at the most basic level, the ball needs to be transferred from one end of the field to the other, which requires (absent the Goalkeeper simply taking what is known as route one – i.e. kicking it as far as they can towards the other goal) several players to pass the ball, control it and pass again. The whole team contributes.

I have written before about the nomenclature maze that often surrounds the Top Data Job [7] (see Further Reading at the end of the article). In some organisations the offence and defence aspects of the data arena are separate, in the sense that both are headed by someone who then reports into a non-data-specialist. For example a Chief Data Officer and a Chief Analytics Officer might both report to a Chief Operating Officer. This feels a bit like the American Football approach; separate teams to do separate things. I’m probably stretching the metaphor [8], but a problem that occurs to me is that – in business – the data offence and data defence teams will need to be on the field of play at the same time. Aren’t they going to get in each other’s way and end up duplicating activities? At the very least, they are going to need some robust rules about who does what and for these to be made very clear to the players. Also, ultimately, while both offence and defence teams in Gridiron will have their own coaches, these will report to a Head Coach; someone who presumably knows just a bit about American Football. I can’t think of any instances where an NFL team has no Head Coach and instead the next tier of staff all report to the owner.

Of course having multiple senior data roles reporting into different parts of the Executive may be fine and many organisations operate this way. However, again coming back to my sporting analogy, I prefer the approach adopted by Football, Rugby, Basketball and the rest. I like the idea of a single, cohesive Data Function, led by someone who is a data specialist, no matter what their job title might me. In most sports what seems to work well is a team in which people have roles, but in which there is cross-over and a need to just get done. I think this works for people involved in data work as well.

You wouldn’t have the Head of Tax and the Head of Financial Reporting both reporting to the CEO, that’s what CFOs are for (among other things). It should be the same in the data arena with the Top Data Job being just that, the one person ultimately accountable for both the control and leverage of data. I have made no secret of my opinion that this is the optimum approach. I think my view is supported by the overwhelming number of sports where offence and defence are functions of the same, cohesive team.

Notes

 [1] Association of course. [2] My winter team sport was always Rugby Football, of the Union variety. But – as is evident from quite a few articles on this site – for many years my spare time was mostly occupied by rock climbing and bouldering. The day after England’s defeat at the hands of Croatia, the Polish guy I regularly buy my skinny flat white from offered his commiserations about yesterday. I was at a loss as to what he had done to me yesterday and he had to explain that he was referring to the World Cup. Not all Brit’s are Football fanatics. [3] Offense and defense for my wife and any other Americans reading. [4] This was as part of Alphabet Soup. [5] The only thing I could think of that was even in the same ballpark (pun intended) was the use of a designated hitter in some baseball leagues. Even then, the majority of the team have to field as well as bat. [6] There are indeed examples of Goalkeepers, the quintessential defensive player, scoring in International Football. [7] With acknowledgement to Peter Aiken. [8] For neither the first time, nor the last: e.g. A bad workman blames his [Business Intelligence] tools and Analogies.

From: peterjamesthomas.com, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary, The Anatomy of a Data Function and A Brief History of Databases

# Building Momentum – How to begin becoming a Data-driven Organisation

Introduction

It is hard to find an organisation that does not aspire to being data-driven these days. While there is undoubtedly an element of me-tooism about some of these statements (or a fear of competitors / new entrants who may use their data better, gaining a competitive advantage), often there is a clear case for the better leverage of data assets. This may be to do with the stand-alone benefits of such an approach (enhanced understanding of customers, competitors, products / services etc. [1]), or as a keystone supporting a broader digital transformation.

However, in my experience, many organisations have much less mature ideas about how to achieve their data goals than they do about setting them. Given the lack of executive experience in data matters [2], it is not atypical that one of the large strategy consultants is engaged to shape a data strategy; one of the large management consultants is engaged to turn this into something executable and maybe to select some suitable technologies; and one of the large systems integrators (or increasingly off-shore organisations migrating up the food chain) is engaged to do the work, which by this stage normally relates to building technology capabilities, implementing a new architecture or some other technology-focussed programme.

Even if each of these partners does a great job – which one would hope they do at their price points – a few things invariably get lost along the way. These include:

1. A data strategy that is closely coupled to the organisation’s actual needs rather than something more general.

While there are undoubtedly benefits in adopting best practice for an industry, there is also something to be said for a more tailored approach, tied to business imperatives and which may have the possibility to define the new best practice. In some areas of business, it makes sense to take the tried and tested approach, to be a part of the herd. In others – and data is in my opinion one of these – taking a more innovative and distinctive path is more likely to lead to success.

2. Connective tissue between strategy and execution.

The distinctions between the three types of organisations I cite above are becoming more blurry (not least as each seeks to develop new revenue streams). This can lead to the strategy consultants developing plans, which get ripped up by the management consultants; the management consultants revisiting the initial strategy; the systems integrators / off-shorers replanning, or opening up technical and architecture discussions again. Of course this means the client paying at least twice for this type of work. What also disappears is the type of accountability that comes when the same people are responsible for developing a strategy, turning this into a practical plan and then executing this [3].

3. Focus on the cultural aspects of becoming more data-driven.

This is both one of the most important factors that determines success or failure [4] and something that – frankly because it is not easy to do – often falls by the wayside. By the time that the third external firm has been on-boarded, the name of the game is generally building something (e.g. a Data Lake, or an analytics platform) rather than the more human questions of who will use this, in what way, to achieve which business objectives.

Of course a way to address the above is to allocate some experienced people (internal or external, ideally probably a blend) who stay the course from development of data strategy through fleshing this out to execution and who – importantly – can also take a lead role in driving the necessary cultural change. It also makes sense to think about engaging organisations who are small enough to tailor their approach to your needs and who will not force a “cookie cutter” approach. I have written extensively about how – with the benefit of such people on board – to run such a data transformation programme [5]. Here I am going to focus on just one phase of such a programme and often the most important one; getting going and building momentum.

A Third Way

There are a couple of schools of thought here:

1. Focus on laying solid data foundations and thus build data capabilities that are robust and will stand the test of time.

2. Focus on delivering something ASAP in the data arena, which will build the case for further investment.

There are points in favour of both approaches and criticisms that can be made of each as well. For example, while the first approach will be necessary at some point (and indeed at a relatively early one) in order to sustain a transformation to a data-driven organisation, it obviously takes time and effort. Exclusive focus on this area can use up money, political capital and try the patience of sponsors. Few business initiatives will be funded for years if they do not begin to have at least some return relatively soon. This remains the case even if the benefits down the line are potentially great.

Equally, the second approach can seem very productive at first, but will generally end up trying to make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear [6]. Inevitably, without improvements to the underlying data landscape, limitations in the type of useful analytics that be carried out will be reached; sometimes sooner that might be thought. While I don’t generally refer to religious topics on this blog [7], the Parable of the Sower is apposite here. Focussing on delivering analytics without attending to the broader data landscape is indeed like the seed that fell on stony ground. The practice yields results that spring up, only to wilt when the sun gets hot, given that they have no real roots [8].

So what to do? Well, there is a Third Way. This involves blending both approaches. I tend to think of this in the following way:

First of all, this is a cartoon, it is not intended to indicate actual percentages, just to illustrate a general trend. In real life, it is likely that you will cycle round multiple times and indeed have different parallel work-streams at different stages. The general points I am trying to convey with this diagram are:

1. At the beginning of a data transformation programme, there should probably be more emphasis on interim delivery and tactical changes. However, imoportantly, there is never zero strategic work. As things progress, the emphasis should swing more to strategic, long-term work. But again, even in a mature programme, there is never zero tactical work. There can also of course be several iterations of such shifts in approach.

2. Interim and tactical steps should relate to not just analytics, but also to making point fixes to the data landscape where possible. It is also important to kick off diagnostic work, which will establish how bad things are and also suggest areas which could be attacked sooner rather than later; this too can initially be done on a tactical basis and then made more robust later. In general, if you consider the span of strategic data work, it makes sense to kick off cut-down (and maybe drastically cut-down) versions of many activities early on.

3. Importantly, the tactical and strategic work-streams should not be hermetically sealed. What you actually want is healthy interplay. Building some early, “quick and dirty” analytics may highlight areas that should be covered by a data audit, or where there are obvious weaknesses in a data architecture. Any data assets that are built on a more strategic basis should also be leveraged by tactical work, improving its utility and probably increasing its lifespan.

Interconnected Activities

At the beginning of this article, I present a diagram (repeated below) which covers three types of initial data activities, the sort of work that – if executed competently – can begin to generate momentum for a data programme. The exhibit also references Data Strategy.

Let’s look at each of these four things in some more detail:

1. Analytic Point Solutions

Where data has historically been locked up in either hard-to-use repositories or in source systems themselves, liberating even a bit of it can be very helpful. This does not have to be with snazzy tools (unless you want to showcase the art of the possible). An anecdote might help to explain.

At one organisation, they had existing reporting that was actually not horrendous, but it was hard to access, hard to parameterise and hard to do follow-on analysis on. I took it upon myself to run 30 plus reports on a weekly and monthly basis, download the contents to Excel, front these with some basic graphs and make these all available on an intranet. This meant that people from Country A or Department B could go straight to their figures rather than having to run fiddly reports. It also meant that they had an immediate visual overview – including some comparisons to prior periods and trends over time (which were not available in the original reports). Importantly, they also got a basic pivot table, which they could use to further examine what was going on. These simple steps (if a bit laborious for me) had a massive impact. I later replaced the Excel with pages I wrote in a new web-reporting tool we built in house. Ultimately, my team moved these to our strategic Analytics platform.

This shows how point solutions can be very valuable and also morph into more strategic facilities over time.

2. Data Process Improvements

Data issues may be to do with a range of problems from poor validation in systems, to bad data integration, but immature data processes and insufficient education for data entry staff are often key conributors to overall problems. Identifying such issues and quantifying their impact should be the province of a Data Audit, which is something I would recommend considering early on in a data programme. Once more this can be basic at first, considering just superficial issues, and then expand over time.

While fixing some data process problems and making a stepped change in data quality will both probably take time an effort, it may be possible to identify and target some narrower areas in which progress can be made quite quickly. It may be that one key attribute necessary for analysis is poorly entered and validated. Some good communications around this problem can help, better guidance for people entering it is also useful and some “quick and dirty” reporting highlighting problems and – hopefully – tracking improvement can make a difference quicker than you might expect [9].

3. Data Architecture Enhancements

Improving a Data Architecture sounds like a multi-year task and indeed it can often be just that. However, it may be that there are some areas where judicious application of limited resource and funds can make a difference early on. A team engaged in a data programme should seek out such opportunities and expect to devote time and attention to them in parallel with other work. Architectural improvements would be best coordinated with data process improvements where feasible.

An example might be providing a web-based tool to look up valid codes for entry into a system. Of course it would be a lot better to embed this functionality in the system itself, but it may take many months to include this in a change schedule whereas the tool could be made available quickly. I have had some success with extending such a tool to allow users to build their own hierarchies, which can then be reflected in either point analytics solutions or more strategic offerings. It may be possible to later offer the tool’s functionality via web-services allowing it to be integrated into more than one system.

4. Data Strategy

I have written extensively about Data Strategy on this site [10]. What I wanted to cover here is the interplay between Data Strategy and some of the other areas I have just covered. It might be thought that Data Strategy is both carved on tablets of stone [11] and stands in splendid and theoretical isolation, but this should not ever be the case. The development of a Data Strategy should of course be informed by a situational analysis and a vision of “what good looks like” for an organisation. However, both of these things can be shaped by early tactical work. Taking cues from initial tactical work should lead to a more pragmatic strategy, more aligned to business realities.

Work in each of the three areas itemised above can play an important role in shaping a Data Strategy and – as the Data Strategy matures – it can obviously guide interim work as well. This should be an iterative process with lots of feedback.

Closing Thoughts

I have captured the essence of these thoughts in the diagram above. The important things to take away are that in order to generate momentum, you need to start to do some stuff; to extend the physical metaphor, you have to start pushing. However, momentum is a vector quantity (it has a direction as well as a magnitude [12]) and building momentum is not a lot of use unless it is in the general direction in which you want to move; so push with some care and judgement. It is also useful to realise that – so long as your broad direction is OK – you can make refinements to your direction as you pick up speed.

The above thoughts are based on my experience in a range of organisations and I am confident that they can be applied anywhere, making allowance for local cultures of course. Once momentum is established, it still needs to be maintained (or indeed increased), but I find that getting the ball moving in the first place often presents the greatest challenge. My hope is that the framework I present here can help data practitioners to get over this initial hurdle and begin to really make a difference in their organisations.

Notes

 [1] Way back in 2009, I wrote about the benefits of leveraging data to provide enhanced information. The article in question was tited Measuring the benefits of Business Intelligence. Everything I mention remains valid today in 2018. [2] See also: [3] If I many be allowed to blow my own trumpet for a moment, I have developed data / information strategies for eight organisations, turned seven of these into a costed / planned programme and executed at least the first few phases of six of these. I have always found being a consistent presence through these phases has been beneficial to the organisations I was helping, as well as helping to reduce duplication of work. [4] See my, now rather venerable, trilogy about cultural change in data / information programmes: together with the rather more recent: [5] See for example: [6] Dictionary.com offers a nice explanation of this phrase.. [7] I was raised a Catholic, but have been areligious for many years. [8] Much like $x^2+x+1=0$. For anyone interested, the two roots of this polynomial are clearly: $-\dfrac{1}{2}+\dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{2}\hspace{1mm}i\hspace{5mm}\text{and}\hspace{5mm}-\dfrac{1}{2}-\dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{2}\hspace{1mm}i$ neither of which is Real. [9] See my rather venerable article, Using BI to drive improvements in data quality, for a fuller treatment of this area. [10] For starters see: and also the Data Strategy segment of The Anatomy of a Data Function – Part I. [11] [12] See Glimpses of Symmetry, Chapter 15 – It’s Space Jim….

From: peterjamesthomas.com, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary, The Anatomy of a Data Function and A Brief History of Databases

# Link directly to entries in the Data and Analytics Dictionary

The peterjamesthomas.com Data and Analytics Dictionary has always had internal tags (anchors for those old enough to recall their HTML) which allowed me, as its author, to link to individual entries from other web-pages I write. An example of the use of these is my article, A Brief History of Databases.

I have now made these tags public. Each entry in the Dictionary is followed by the full tag address in a box. This is accompanied by a link icon as follows:

Clicking on the link icon will copy the tag address to your clipboard. Alternatively the tag URL may just be copied from the box containing it directly. You can then use this address in your own article to link back to the D&AD entry.

As with the vast majority of my work, the contents of the Data and Analytics Dictionary is covered by a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. This means you can include my text or images in your own web-pages, presentations, Word documents etc. You can even modify my work, so long as you point out that you have done this.

If you would like to link back to the Data and Analytics Dictionary to provide definitions of terms that you are using, this should now be very easy. For example:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing Big Data elit. Duis tempus nisi sit amet libero vehicula Data Lake, sed tempor leo consectetur. Pellentesque suscipit sed felisData Governance ac mattis. Fusce mattis luctus posuere. Duis a Spark mattis velit. In scelerisque massa ac turpis viverra, acLogistic Regression pretium neque condimentum.

Equally, I’d be delighted if you wanted to include part of all of the text of an entry in the Data and Analytics Dictionary in your own work, commercial or personal; a link back using this new functionality would be very much appreciated.

I hope that this new functionality will be useful. An update to the Dictionary’s contents will be published in the next couple of months.

From: peterjamesthomas.com, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary, The Anatomy of a Data Function and A Brief History of Databases

# Sic Transit Gloria Magnorum Datorum

It happens to all of us eventually I suppose.

Just the other day, I heard someone referring to “traditional Big Data”. Since when did Big Data become “traditional”, I didn’t get the e-mail? Of course, in the technology field, the epithet “traditional” is code for “broken”, “no longer of any use” and – most damningly of all – “deeply uncool”. The term is widely used, whether – with this connotation – it is either helpful or accurate is perhaps a matter for debate. This usage makes me recall the rather silly debate about Analytics versus “traditional” Business Intelligence that occurred around 2009 [1].

By way of context, the person talking about “traditional Big Data” was referring to the difference between some of the original denizens of the Hadoop ecosystem and more recent offerings like Databricks or Beam. They also had in mind the various quasi-proprietary flavours of Big Data and/or Big Data plug-ins offered by (that word again) “traditional” vendors. In this sense, the usage is probably appropriate, albeit somewhat jarring. In the more pejorative sense I refer to above, “traditional” is somewhat misleading when applied to either Big Data or – in the author’s opinion – several of its precursors.

While we inhabit a world which places a premium on innovation, favouring the new and the shiny [2], traditional methods have much to offer. If something – a technique or technology – has achieved “traditional” status, it means that it has become part of how things are done. While shaking up the status quo can be beneficial, “traditional” approaches have the not insignificant benefit of having been tried and tested. “Traditional” data tools are ones that have survived some time and are still used. While not guaranteeing success, it should at least be possible to be successful with such tools because other people have done this before.

Maybe, several years after its move into the mainstream, Big Data has become “traditional”. However I would take this as meaning “fit for purpose”, “useful” and “still pretty cool”. Then I think the same about many of the technologies that were described as “traditional” in contrast to Big Data. As ever, the main things that lead to either success or failure in data-centric work [3] have very little to do with technology, be that traditional or à la mode.

Notes

 [1] If you have the stomach for it, see Business Analytics vs Business Intelligence and succeeding articles. [2] See also 2009’s The latest and greatest versus the valuable. [3] I itemise a few of these in last year’s 20 Risks that Beset Data Programmes.

From: peterjamesthomas.com, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary

# A further extension of the Data and Analytics Dictionary

The peterjamesthomas.com Data and Analytics Dictionary is an active document and I will continue to issue revised versions of it periodically. A larger update is in the works, but for now here are a dozen new definitions:

As previously stated, ideas for what to include next would be more than welcome (any suggestions used will also be acknowledged).

From: peterjamesthomas.com, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary

# A Retrospective of 2017’s Articles

This article was originally intended for publication late in the year it reviews, but, as they [1] say, the best-laid schemes o’ mice an’ men gang aft agley…

In 2017 I wrote more articles [2] than in any year since 2009, which was the first full year of this site’s existence. Some were viewed by thousands of people, others received less attention. Here I am going to ignore the metric of popular acclaim and instead highlight a few of the articles that I enjoyed writing most, or sometimes re-reading a few months later [3]. Given the breadth of subject matter that appears on peterjamesthomas.com, I have split this retrospective into six areas, which are presented in decreasing order of the number of 2017 articles I wrote in each. These are as follows:

In each category, I will pick out two or three of pieces which I feel are both representative of my overall content and worth a read. I would be more than happy to receive any feedback on my selections, or suggestions for different choices.

I would like to close this review of 2017 with a final article, one that somehow defies classification:

 April 25 Indispensable Business Terms An illustrated Buffyverse take on Business gobbledygook – What would Buffy do about thinking outside the box? To celebrate 20 years of Buffy the Vampire Slayer and 1st April 2017.

Notes

 [1] “They” here obviously standing for Robert Burns. [2] Thirty-four articles and one new page. [3] Of course some of these may also have been popular, I’m not being masochistic here!

From: peterjamesthomas.com, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary

# The Anatomy of a Data Function – Part III

 Part I Part II Part III

This is the third and final part of my review of the anatomy of a Data Function, Part I may be viewed here and Part II here.

In the first article, I introduced the following Data Function organogram:

and went on to cover each of Data Strategy, Analytics & Insight and Data Operations & Technology. In Part II, I discussed the two remaining Data Function areas of Data Architecture and Data Management. In this final article, I wanted to cover the Related Areas that appear on the right of the above diagram. This naturally segues into talking about the practicalities of establishing a Data Function and highlighting some problems to be avoided or managed.

As in Parts I and II, unless otherwise stated, text indented as a quotation is excerpted from the Data and Analytics Dictionary.

Related Areas

I have outlined some of the key areas with which the Data Function will work. This is not intended to be a comprehensive list and indeed the boxes may be different in different organisations. Regardless of the departments that appear here, the general approach will however be similar. I won’t go through each function in great detail here. There are some obvious points to make however. The first is an overall one that clearly a collaborative approach is mandatory. While there are undeniably some police-like attributes of any Data Function, it would be best if these were carried out by friendly community policemen or women, not paramilitaries.

So rather more:

and rather less:

Data Privacy and Information Security

Though strongly related, these areas do not generally fall under the Data Function. Indeed some legislation requires that they are separate functions. Data Privacy and Information Security are related, but also distinct from each other. Definitions are as follows:

[Data Privacy] pertains to data held by organisations about individuals (customers, counterparties etc.) and specifically to data that can be used to identify people (personally identifiable data), or is sensitive in nature, such as medical records, financial transactions and so on. There is a legal obligation to safeguard such information and many regulations around how it can be used and how long it can be retained. Often the storage and use of such data requires explicit consent from the person involved.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Data Privacy

Information Security consists of the steps that are necessary to make sure that any data or information, particularly sensitive information (trade secrets, financial information, intellectual property, employee details, customer and supplier details and so on), is protected from unauthorised access or use. Threats to be guarded against would include everything from intentional industrial espionage, to ad hoc hacking, to employees releasing or selling company information. The practice of Information Security also applies to the (nowadays typical) situation where some elements of internal information is made available via the internet. There is a need here to ensure that only those people who are authenticated to access such information can do so.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Information Security

Digital

Digital is not a box that would have necessarily have appeared on this chart 15, or even 10, years ago. However, nowadays this is often an important (and large) department in many organisations. Digital departments leverage data heavily; both what they gather themselves and and data drawn from other parts of the organisation. This can be to show customers their transactions, to guide next best actions, or to suggest potentially useful products or services. Given this, collaboration with the Data Function should be particularly strong.

Change Management

There are some specific points to make with respect to Change collaboration. One dimension of this was covered in Part II. Looking at things the other way round, as well as being a regular department, with what are laughingly referred to as “business as usual” responsibilities [1], the Data Function will also drive a number of projects and programmes. Depending on how this is approached in an organisation, this means either that the Data Function will need its own Project Managers etc., or to have such allocated from Change. This means that interactions with Change are bidirectional, which may be particularly challenging.

For some reason, Change departments have often ended up holding the purse strings for all projects and programmes (perhaps a less than ideal outcome), so a Data Function looking to get its own work done may run counter to this (see also the second section of this article).

IT

While the role of IT is perhaps narrower nowadays than historically [2], they are deeply involved in the world of data and the infrastructure that supports its movement around the organisation. This means that the Data Function needs to pay particular attention to its relationship with IT.

Embedded Analytics Teams

A wholly centralised approach to delivering Analytics is neither feasible, nor desirable. I generally recommend hybrid arrangements with a strong centralised group and affiliated analytical resource embedded in business teams. In some organisations such people may be part of the Data Function, or have a dotted line into it. In others the connection may be less formal. Whatever the arrangements, the best result would be if embedded analytical staff viewed themselves as part of a broader analytical and data community, which can share tips, work to standards and leverage each other’s work.

Data Stewards

Data Stewards are a concept that arises from a requirement to embed Data Governance policies and processes. Data Function Governance staff and Data Architects both need to work closely with Data Stewards. A definition is as follows:

This is a concept that arises out of Data Governance. It recognises that accountability for things like data quality, metadata and the implementation of data policies needs to be devolved to business departments and often locations. A Data Steward is the person within a particular part of an organisation who is responsible for ensuring that their data is fit for purpose and that their area adheres to data policies and guidelines.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Data Steward

End User Computing

There are several good reasons for engaging with this area. First, the various EUCs that have been developed will embody some element (unsatisfied elsewhere) of requirements for the processing and or distribution of data; these needs probably need to be met. Second, EUCs can present significant risks to organisations (as well as delivering significant benefits) and ameliorating these (while hopefully retaining the benefits) should be on the list of any Data Function. Third, the people who have built EUCs tend to be knowledgeable about an organisation’s data, the sort of people who can be useful sources of information and also potential allies.

[End User Computing] is a term used to cover systems developed by people other than an organisation’s IT department or an approved commercial software vendor. It may be that such software is developed and maintained by a small group of people within a department, but more typically a single person will have created and cares for the code. EUCs may be written in mainstream languages such as Java, C++ or Python, but are frequently instead Excel- or Access-based, leveraging their shared macro/scripting language, VBA (for Visual Basic for Applications). While related to Microsoft Visual Basic (the precursor to .NET), VBA is not a stand-alone language and can only run within a Microsoft Office application, such as Excel.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: End User Computing (EUC)

Third Party Providers

Often such organisations may be contracted through the IT function; however the Data Function may also hire its own consultants / service providers. In either case, the Data Function will need to pay similar attention to external groups as it does to internal service providers.

Building a Data Function for the Practical Man [3]

Starting Small

It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a Leader newly in possession of a Data Function, must be in want of some staff [5]. However seldom will such a person be furnished with a budget and headcount commensurate with the task at hand; at least in the early days. Often instead, the mission, should you choose to accept it, is to begin to make a difference in the Data World with a skeleton crew at best [6]. Well no one can work miracles and so it is a question of judgement where to apply scarce resource.

My view is that this is best applied in shining a light on the existing data landscape, but in two ways. First, at the Analytics end of the spectrum, looking to unearth novel findings from an organisation’s data; the sort of task you give to a capable Data Scientist with some background in the industry sector they are operating in. Second, at the Governance end of the spectrum, documenting failures in existing data processing and reporting; in particular any that could expose the organisation to specific and tangible risks. In B2C organisations, an obvious place to look is in customer data. In B2B ones instead you can look at transactions with counterparties, or in the preparation of data for external reports, either Financial or Regulatory. Here the ideal person is a competent Data Analyst with some knowledge of the existing data landscape, in particular the compromises that have to be made to work with it.

In both cases, the objective is to tell the organisation things it does not know. Positively, a glimmer of what nuggets its data holds and the impact this could have. Negatively, examples of where a poor data landscape leads to legal, regulatory, or reputational risks.

These activities can add value early on and increase demand for more of this type of work. The first investigation can lead to the creation of a Data Science team, the second to the establishment of regular Data Audits and people to run these.

A corollary here is a point that I ceaselessly make, data exploitation and data control are two sides of the same coin. By making progress in areas that are at least superficially at antipodal locations within a Data Function, the connective tissue between them becomes more apparent.

BAU or Project?

There is a pernicious opinion held by an awful lot of people which goes as follows.

1. We have issues with our data, its quality, completeness and fitness for purpose.
2. We do not do a good enough job of leveraging our data to guide decision making.
3. Therefore we need a data project / programme to sort this out once and for all.
4. Where is the telephone number of the Change Director?

Well there is some logic to the above and setting up a data project (more likely programme) is a helpful thing to do. However, this is necessary, but not sufficient [7]. Let’s think of a comparison?

1. We need to ensure that our Financial and Management accounts are sound.
3. Therefore we need a Finance project / programme to sort this out once and for all.
4. Where is the telephone number of the Change Director?

Most CFOs would view the above as their responsibility. They have an entire function focussed on such matters. Of course they may want to run some Finance projects and Change will help with this, but a Finance Department is an ongoing necessity.

To pick another example one that illustrates just how quickly the make-up of organisations can change, just replace the word “Finance” with “Risk” in the above and “CFO” with “CRO”. While programmes may be helpful to improve either Risk or Finance, they do not run the Risk or Finance functions, the designated officers do and they have a complement of staff to assist them. It is exactly the same with data. Data programmes will enhance your use of data or control of it, but they will not ensure the day-to-day management and leverage of data in your organisation. Running “data” is the responsibility of the designated officer [8] and they should have a complement of staff to assist them as well.

The Data Function is a “business as usual” [9] function. Conveying this fact to a range of stakeholders is going to be one of the first challenges. It may be that the couple of examples I cite above can provide some ammunition for this task.

Demolishing Demoralising Demarcations

With Data Functions and their leaders both being relative emergent phenomena [10], the separation of duties between them and other areas of a business that also deal with data can be less than clear. Scanning down the Related Areas column of the overall Data Function chart, three entities stand out who may feel that they have a strong role to play in data matters: Digital, Change Management and IT.

Of course each is correct and collaboration is the best way forward. However, human nature is not always do benign and I have several times seen jockeying for position between Data, Digital, Change and IT. Route A to resolving this is of course having clarity as to everyone’s roles and a lead Executive (normally a CEO or COO) who ensures that people play nicely with each other. Back in the real world, it will be down to the leaders in each of these areas to forge some sort of consensus about who does what and why. It is probably best to realise this upfront, rather than wasting time and effort lobbying Executives to rule on things they probably have no intention of ruling on.

Nascent Data Function leaders should be aware that there will be a tendency for other teams to carve out what might be seen as the sexier elements of Data work; this can almost seem logical when – for example – a Digital team already has a full complement of web analytics staff; surely it is just a matter of pointing these at other internal data sets, right?

If we assume that the Data Function is the last of the above mentioned departments to form, then “zero sum game” thinking would dictate that whatever is accretive to the Data Function is deleterious to existing data staff in other departments. Perhaps a good place to start in combatting this mind-set is to first acknowledge it and second to take steps to allay people’s fears. It may well make sense for some staff to gravitate to the Data Function, but only if there is a compelling logic and only if all parties agree. Offering the leaders of other departments joint decision-making on such sensitive issues can be a good confidence-building step.

Setting out explicitly to help colleagues in other departments, where feasible to do so, can make very good sense and begin the necessary work of building bridges. As with most areas of human endeavour, forging good relationships and working towards the common good are both the right thing to do and put the Data Function leader in a good place as and when more contentious discussions arise.

To make this concrete, when people in another function appear to be stepping on the toes of the Data Function, instead of reacting with outrage, it may be preferable to embrace and fully understand the work that is being done. It may even make sense to support such work, even if the ultimate view is to do things a bit differently. Insisting on organisational purity and a “my way, or the highway” attitude to data matters are both steps towards a failed Data Function. Instead, engage, listen, support and – maybe over time – seek to nudge things towards your desired state.

Closing Thoughts

So we have reached the end of our anatomical journey. While maybe the information contained in these three articles would pale into insignificance compared to an actual course in human anatomy, we have nevertheless covered five main work-areas within a Data Function, splitting these down into nineteen sub-areas and cataloguing eight functions with which collaboration will be key in driving success. I have also typed over 8,000 words to convey my ideas. For those who have read all of them, thank you for your perseverance; I hope that the effort has been worthwhile and that you found some of my opinions thought-provoking.

I would also like to thank the various people who have provided positive feedback on this series via LinkedIn and Facebook. Your comments were particularly influential in shaping this final chapter.

So what are the main takeaways? Well first the word collaboration has cropped up a lot and – because data is so pervasive in organisations – the need to collaborate with a wide variety of people and departments is strong. Second, extending the human anatomy analogy, while each human shares a certain basic layout (upright, bipedal, two arms, etc.), there is considerable variation within the basic parameters. The same goes for the organogram of a Data Function that I have presented at the beginning of each of these articles. The boxes may be rearranged in some organisations, some may not sit in the Data Function in others, the amount of people allocated to each work-area will vary enormously. As with human anatomy, grasping the overall shape is more important than focussing on the inevitable variations between different people.

Third, a central concept is of course that a Data Function is necessary, not just a series of data-centric projects. Even if it starts small, some dedicated resource will be necessary and it would probably be foolish to embark on a data journey without at least a skeleton crew. Fourth, in such straitened circumstances, it is important to point early and clearly to the value of data, both in reducing potentially expensive risks and in driving insights that can save money, boost market share or improve products or services. If the budget is limited, attend to these two things first.

A fifth and final thought is how little these three articles have focussed on technology. Hadoop clusters, data visualisation suites and data governance tools all have their place, but the success or failure of data-centric work tends to pivot on more human and process considerations. This theme of technology being the least important part of data work is one I have come back to time and time again over the nine years that this blog has been published. This observation remains as true today as back in 2008.

 Part I Part II Part III

Notes

 [1] BAU should in general be filed along with other mythical creatures such as Unicorns, Bigfoot, The Kraken and The Loch Ness Monster. [2] Not least because of the rise of Data Functions, Digital Teams and stand-alone Change Organisations. [3] A title borrowed from J E Thompson’s Calculus for the Practical Man; a tome read by the young Richard Feynman in childhood. Today “Calculus for the Practical Person” might be a more inclusive title. [4] Also known as “pulling yourself up by your bootstraps”. [5] I seem to be channelling JA a lot at present – see A truth universally acknowledged…. [6] Indeed I have stated on this particular journey with just myself for company on no fewer than for occasions (these three 1, 2, 3, plus at Bupa). [7] Once a Mathematician, always a Mathematician. [8] See Alphabet Soup for some ideas about what he or she might be called. [9] See note 1. [10] Despite early high-profile CDOs beginning to appear at the turn of the millennium – Joe Bugajski was appointed VP and Chief Data Officer at Visa International in 2001 (Wikipedia).

From: peterjamesthomas.com, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary

# The Anatomy of a Data Function – Part II

 Part I Part II Part III

This is the second part of my review of the anatomy of a Data Function, the artfully named Part I may be viewed here. As seems to happen all too often to me, this series will now extend to having a Part III, which may be viewed here.

In the first article, I introduced the following Data Function organogram:

and went on to cover each of Data Strategy, Analytics & Insight and Data Operations & Technology. In Part II, I will consider the two remaining Data Function areas of Data Architecture and Data Management. Covering Related Areas, and presenting some thoughts on how to go about setting up a Data Function and the pitfalls to be faced along the way, together form the third and final part of this trilogy.

As in Part I, unless otherwise stated, text indented as a quotation is excerpted from the Data and Analytics Dictionary.

Data Architecture

To be somewhat self-referential, this area acts a a cornerstone for the rest of the Data Function. While sometimes non-Data architects can seem to inhabit a loftier plane than most mere mortals, Data Architects (who definitively must be part of the Data Function and none of the Business, Enterprise or Solutions Architecture groups) tend to be more practical sorts with actual hands-on technical skills. Perhaps instead of the title “Architect”, “Structural Engineer” would be more appropriate. When a Data Architect draws a diagram with connected boxes, he or she generally understands how the connections work and could probably take a fair stab at implementing the linkages themselves. The other denizens of this area, such as Data Business Analysts, are also essentially pragmatic people, focused on real business outcomes. Data Architecture is a non-theoretical discipline and here I present some of the real-world activities that its members are often engaged in.

Change Portfolio Engagement

One of the most important services that a good Data Function can perform is to act as a moderator for the otherwise deleterious impact that uncontrolled (and uncoordinated) Change portfolios can have on even the best of data landscapes [1]. As I mention in another article:

Over the last decade or so, the delivery of technological change has evolved to the point where many streams of parallel work are run independently of each other with each receiving very close management scrutiny in order to ensure delivery on-time and on-budget. It should be recognised that some of this shift in modus operandi has been as a result of IT departments running projects that have spiralled out of control, or where delivery has been significantly delayed or compromised. The gimlet-like focus of Change on delivery “come Hell or High-water” represents the pendulum swinging to the other extreme.

What this shift in approach means in practice is that – as is often the case – when things go wrong or take longer than anticipated, areas of work are de-scoped to secure delivery dates. In my experience, 9 times out of 10 one of the things that gets thrown out is data-related work; be that not bothering to develop reporting on top of new systems, not integrating new data into existing repositories, not complying with data standards, or not implementing master data management.

As well as the danger of skipping necessary data related work, if some data-related work is actually undertaken, then corners may be cut to meet deadlines and budgets. It is not atypical for instance that a Change Programme, while adding their new capabilities to interfaces or ETL, compromises or overwrites existing functionality. This can mean that data-centric code is in a worse state after a Change Programme than before. My roadworks anecdote begins to feel all too apt a metaphor to employ.

Looking more broadly at Change Programmes, even without the curse of de-scopes, their focus is seldom data and the expertise of Change staff is not often in data matters. Because of this, such work can indeed seem to be analogous to continually digging up the same stretch of road for different purposes, combined with patching things up again in a manner that can sometimes be barely adequate. Extending our metaphor, the result of Change that is not controlled from a data point of view can be a landscape with lumps, bumps and pot-holes. Maybe the sewer was re-laid on time and to budget, but the road has been trashed in the process. Perhaps a new system was shoe-horned in to production, but rendered elements of an Analytical Repository useless in the process.

Excerpted from: Bumps in the Road

A primary responsibility of a properly constituted Data Function is to lean hard against the prevailing winds of Change in order to protect existing data capabilities that would otherwise likely be blown away [2]. Given the gargantuan size of most current Change teams, it makes sense to have at least a reasonable amount of Data Function resource applied to this area. Hopefully early interventions in projects and programmes can mitigate any potentially adverse impacts and perhaps even lead to Change being accretive to data landscapes, as it really ought to be.

The best approach, as with most human endeavours is a collaborative one, with Data Function staff (probably Data Architects) getting involved in new Change projects and programmes at an early stage and shaping them to be positive from a Data dimension. However, there also needs to be teeth in the process; on occasion the Data Function must be able to prevent work that would cause true damage from going ahead; hopefully powers that are used more in breach than observance.

Data Modelling

It is in this area that the practical bent of Data Architects and Data Business Analysts is seen very clearly. Data modelling mirrors the realities of systems and databases the way that Theoretical Physicists use Mathematics to model the Natural World [3]. In both cases, while there may be a degree of abstraction, the end purpose is to achieve something more concrete. A definition is as follows:

[Data Modelling is] the process of examining data sets (e.g. the database underpinning a system) in order to understand how they are structured, the relationships between their various parts and the business entities and transactions they represent. While system data will have a specific Physical Data Model (the tables it contains and their linkages), Data Modelling may instead look to create a higher-level and more abstract set of pseudo-tables, which would be easier to relate to for non-technical staff and would more closely map to business terms and activities; this is known as a Conceptual Data Model. Sitting somewhere between the two may be found Logical Data Models. There are several specific documents produced by such work, one of the most common being an Entity-Relationship diagram, e.g. a sales order has a customer and one or more line items, each of which has a product.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Data Modelling

Another critical role. In my long experience of both setting up Data Functions and running Data Programmes, having good Data Business Analysts on board is often the difference between success and failure. I cannot stress enough how important this role is.

Data Business Analysts are neither regular Business Analysts, nor just Data Analysts, but rather a combination of the best of both. They do have all the requirement gathering skills of the best BAs, but complement these with Data Modelling abilities, always seeking to translate new requirements into expanded or refined Data Models. Also the way that they approach business requirements will be very specific. The optimal way to do this is by teasing out (and they collating and categorising) business questions and then determining the information needed to answer these. A good Data Business Analyst will also have strong Data Analysis skills, being able to work with unfamiliar and lightly-documented datasets to discern meaning and link this to business concepts. A definition is as follows:

A person who has extensive understanding of both business processes and the data necessary to support these. A Business Analyst is expert at discerning what people need to do. A Data Analyst is adept at working with datasets and extracting meaning from them. A Data Business Analyst can work equally happily in both worlds at the same time. When they talk to people about their requirements for information, they are simultaneously updating mental models of the data necessary to meet these needs. When they are considering how lightly-documented datasets hang together, they constantly have in mind the business purpose to which such resources may be bent.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Data Business Analyst

Data Management

Again, it is worth noting that I have probably defined this area more narrowly than many. It could be argued that it should encompass the work I have under Data Architecture and maybe much of what is under Data Operations & Technology. The actual hierarchy is likely to be driven by factors like the nature of the organisation and the seniority of Managers in the Data Function. For good or ill, I have focussed Data Management more on the care and feeding of Data Assets in my recommended set-up. A definition is as follows:

The day-to-day management of data within an organisation, which encompasses areas such as Data Architecture, Data Quality, Data Governance (normally on behalf of a Data Governance Committee) and often some elements of data provision and / or regular reporting. The objective is to appropriately manage the lifecycle of data throughout the entire organisation, which both ensures the reliability of data and enables it to become a valuable and strategic asset.

In some organisations, Data Management and Analytics are part of the same organisation, in others they are separate but work closely together to achieve shared objectives.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Data Management

Data Governance

There is a clear link here with some of the Data Architecture activities, particularly the Change Portfolio Engagement work-area. Governance should represent the strategic management of the data component of Change (i.e. most of Change), day-to-day collaboration would sit more in the Data Architecture area.

The management processes and policies necessary to ensure that data captured or generated within a company is of an appropriate standard to use, represents actual business facts and has its integrity preserved when transferred to repositories (e.g. Data Lakes and / or Data Warehouses, General Ledgers etc.), especially when this transfer involves aggregation or merging of different data sets. The activities that Data Governance has oversight of include the operation of and changes to Systems of Record and the activities of Data Management and Analytics departments (which may be merged into one unit, or discrete but with close collaboration).

Data Governance has a strategic role, often involving senior management. Day-to-day tasks supporting Data Governance are often carried out by a Data Management team.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Data Governance

This is a relatively straightforward area to conceptualise. Rigorous and consistent definitions of master data and calculated data are indispensable in all aspects of how a Data Function operates and how an organisation both leverages and protects its data. Focusing on Metadata, a definition would be as follows:

[Metadata is] data about data. So descriptions of what appears in fields, how these relate to other fields and what concepts bigger constructs like Tables embody. This helps people unfamiliar with a dataset to understand how it hangs together and is good practice in the same way that documentation of any other type of code is good practice. Metadata can be used to support some elements of Data Discovery by less technical people. It is also invaluable when there is a need for Data Migration.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Metadata

Data Audit

One of the challenges in driving Data Quality improvements in organisations is actually highlighting the problems and their impacts. Often poor Data Quality is a hidden cost, spread across many people taking longer to do their jobs than is necessary, or specific instances where interactions with business counterparties (including customers) are compromised. Organisations obviously cope – at least in general – with these issues, but they are a drag on efficiency and, in extremis, can lead to incidents which can cause significant financial loss and/or reputational damage. A way to make such problems more explicit is via a regular Data Audit, a review of data in source systems and as it travels through various data repositories. This would include some assessment of the completeness and overall quality of data, highlighting areas of particular concern. So one component might include the percentage of active records which suffer from a significant data quality issue.

It is important that any such issues are categorised. Are they the result of less than perfect data entry procedures, which could be tightened up? Are they due to deficient validation in transactional systems, where this could be improved and there may be a role for Master Data Management? Are data interfaces between systems to blame, where these need to be reengineered or potentially replaced? Are there architectural issues with systems or repositories, which will require remedial work to address?

This information needs to be rolled up and presented in an accessible manner so that those responsible for systems and processes can understand where issues lie. Data Audits, even if partially automated, take time and effort, so it may be appropriate to carry them out quarterly. In this case, it is valuable to understand how the situation is changing over time and also to track the – hopefully positive – impact of any remedial action. Experienced Data Analysts with a good appreciation of how business is conducted in the organisation are the type of resource best suited to Data Audit work.

Data Quality

Much that needs to be said here is covered in the previous section about Data Audit. Data Quality can be defined as follows:

The characteristics of data that cover how accurately and completely it mirrors real world events and thereby how much reliance can be placed on it for the purpose of generating information and insight. Enhancing Data Quality should be a primary objective of Data Management teams.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Data Quality

A Data Quality team, which would work closely with Data Audit colleagues, would be focussed on helping to drive improvements. The details of such work are covered in an earlier article, from which the following is excerpted:

There are a number of elements that combine to improve the quality of data:

As with any strategy, it is ideal to have the support of all four pillars. However, I have seen greater and quicker improvements through the fourth element than with any of the others.

Excerpted from: Using BI to drive improvements in data quality

Master Data Management

There is some overlap here with Data Definitions & Metadata as mentioned above. Master Data Management has also been mentioned here in the context of Data Quality initiatives. However this specialist area tends to demand dedicated staff. A definition is as follows:

Master Data Management is the term used to both describe the set of process by which Master Data is created, changed and deleted in an organisation and also the technological tools that can facilitate these processes. There is a strong relation here to Data Governance, an area which also encompasses broader objectives. The aim of MDM is to ensure that the creation of business transactions results in valid data, which can then be leveraged confidently to create Information.

Many of the difficulties in MDM arise from items of Master Data that can change over time; for example when one counterparty is acquired by another, or an organisational structure is changed (maybe creating new departments and consolidating old ones). The challenges here include, how to report historical transactions that are tagged with Master Data that has now changed.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Master Data Management

At this point, we have covered all of the work-areas within our idealised Data Function. In the third and final piece, we will consider the right-hand column of Related Areas, ones that a Data Function must collaborate with. Having covered these, the trilogy will close by offering some thoughts on the challenges of setting up a Data Function and how these may be overcome.

 Part I Part II Part III

Notes

 [1] I am old enough to recall a time before Change portfolios, I can recall no organisation in which I have worked over the last 20 years in which Change portfolios have had a positive impact on data assets; maybe I have just been unlucky, but it begins to feel more like a fundamental Physical Law. [2] I have clearly been writing about hurricanes too much recently! [3] As is seen, for example in, the Introduction to my [as yet unfinished] book on the role of Group Theory in Theoretical Physics, Glimpses of Symmetry.

From: peterjamesthomas.com, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary

# The Anatomy of a Data Function – Part I

 Part I Part II Part III

Back in Alphabet Soup, I presented a diagram covering what I think are good and bad approaches to organising Analytics and Data Management. I wanted to offer an expanded view [1] of the good organisation chart and to talk a bit about each of its components. Originally, I planned to address these objectives across two articles. As happens to me all too frequently, the piece has now expanded to become three parts. The second may be read here, and the third here.

Let’s leap right in and look at my suggested chart:

I appreciate that the above is a lot of boxes! I can feel Finance and HR staff reaching for their FTE calculators as I write. A few things to note:

1. I have avoided the temptation to add the titles of executives, managers or team leaders. Alphabet Soup itself pointed out how tough it can be to wrestle with the nomenclature. Instead I have just focussed on areas of work.

2. The term “work areas” is intentional. In larger organisations, there may be teams or individuals corresponding to each box. In smaller ones Data Function staff will wear many hats and several work areas may be covered by one person.

3. In some places, a number of work areas that I have tagged as Data Function ones may be performed in other parts of the organisation, though it is to be hoped with collaboration and coordination.

Having dealt with these caveats, let’s provide some colour on each of these progressing from top to bottom and left to right. In this first article we will consider the Data Strategy, Analytics & Insight and Data Operations & Technology areas. The second part will cover the remaining elements of Data Architecture and Data Management. The final article, considers Related Areas before also covering some of the challenges that may be faced in setting up a Data Function.

In what follows, unless otherwise stated, text indented as a quotation is excerpted from the Data and Analytics Dictionary.

Data Strategy

A clear strategy is obviously most important to establish in the early days of a Data Function. Indeed a Data Strategy may well call for the creation of a Data Function where none currently exists. For anyone interested in this process, I recommend my series of three articles on this subject [2]. However a Data Strategy is not something carved in stone, it will need to be revisited and adapted (maybe significantly) as circumstances change (e.g. after an acquisition, a change in market conditions or potentially due to the emergence of some new technology). There is thus a need for ongoing work in this area. However, as demand for strategic work will tend to be lumpy, I suggest amalgamating Data Strategy with the following two sub-areas.

Data Comms & Education

Elsewhere on this site, I have highlighted the need for effective communication, education and assiduous follow-up in data programmes [3]. Education on data matters does not stop when a data quality drive is successfully completed, or when a new set of analytical capabilities are introduced, this is a need for an ongoing commitment here. Activities falling into this work area include: publishing regular data newsletters and infographics, designing and helping to deliver training programmes, providing follow-up and support to aid the embedded used of new capabilities or to ingrain new behaviours.

Relationship Management

There is a need for all Data Function staff to establish and maintain good working relations with any colleagues they come into contact with, regardless of their level or influence. However, the nature of, generally hierarchical, organisations is that it is often prudent to pay special attention to more senior staff, or to the type of person (common in many companies) who may not be that senior, but whose opinion is influential. In aggregate these two groups of people are often described as stakeholders. Providing regular updates to stakeholders and ensuring both that they are comfortable with Data Function work and that this is aligned with their priorities can be invaluable [4]. Having senior, business-savvy Data Function people available to do this work is the most likely path to success.

Analytics & Insight

Broadly speaking the Analytics area and its sub-areas are focussed more on one-off analyses rather that the recurrent production of information [5], the latter being more the preserve of the Data Operations & Technology area. There is also more of a statistical flavour to the work carried out here.

[Analytics relates to] deriving insights from data which are generally beyond the purpose for which the data was originally captured – to be contrasted with Information which relates to the meaning inherent in data (i.e. the reason that it was captured in the first place). Analytics often employ advanced statistical techniques (logistic regression, multivariate regression, time series analysis etc.) to derive meaning from data.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Analytics

Data Science

I have Data Science as a sub-area of analytics, as with most terminology used in the data arena and most organisational units that exist in Data Functions, some people might argue that I have this the wrong way round and that Data Science should be preeminent. Reconciling different points of view is not my objective here, I think most people will agree that both work areas should be covered. This comment pertains to many other parts of this article. Here is a definition of the area (or rather the people who populate it):

[Data Scientists are people who are] au fait with exploiting data in many formats from Flat Files to Data Warehouses to Data Lakes. Such individuals possess equal abilities in the data technologies (such as Big Data) and how to derive benefit from these via statistical modelling. Data Scientists are often lapsed actual scientists.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Data Scientist

Data Visualisation

There is an overlap here with both the Data Science team within the Analytics & Insight area and the Business Intelligence team in the Data Operations & Technology area. Many of the outputs of a good Data Function will include graphs, charts and other such exhibits. However, here would be located the real specialists, the people who would set standards for the presentation of visual data across the Data Function and be the most able in leveraging visualisation tools. A definition of Data Visualisation is as follows:

Techniques – such as graphs – for presenting complex information in a manner in which it can be more easily digested by human observers. Based on the concept that a picture paints a thousand words (or a dozen Excel sheets).

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Data Visualisation

Predictive Analytics

Gartner refer to four types of Analytics: descriptive, diagnostic, predictive and prescriptive analytics. In an article I referred to these as:

• What happened?
• Why did it happen?
• What is going to happen next?
• What should we be doing?

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Analytics

Predictive analytics is that element of the Analytics function that aims to predict the future, “What is going to happen next?” in the above list. This can be as simple as extrapolating data based on a trend line, or can involve more sophisticated techniques such as Time Series Analysis. As with most elements of the Data Function, there is overlap between Predictive Analytics and both Data Science and Business Intelligence.

“Skunkworks”

As with Data Strategy, state-of-the-art in Analytics & Insight will continue to evolve. This part of the Data Function will aim to keep current with the latest developments and to try out new techniques and new technologies that may later be adopted more widely by Data Function colleagues. The “skunkworks” team would be staffed by capable programmers / data scientists / statisticians.

Data Operations & Technology

It could be reasonably argued that this area is part of Data Management; I probably would not object too strongly to this suggestion. However, there are some benefits to considering it separately. This is the most IT-like of the areas considered here. It recognises that data technology (being it the Hadoop suite, Data Warehouse technology, or combinations of both) is different to many other forms of technology and needs its own specialists to focus on it. It is likely that the staff in this area will also collaborate closely with IT (see the final work area in Part II) or, in some cases, supervise work carried out by IT. As well as directly creating data capabilities, Data Operations & Technology staff would be active in the day-to-day running of these; again in collaboration with colleagues from both inside and outside of the Data Function.

There is no ISO definition, but I use this term as a catch-all to describe the transformation of raw data into information that can be disseminated to business people to support decision-making.

Data and Analytics Dictionary entry: Business Intelligence

This sub-area focusses on the relatively mature task of providing Business Intelligence solutions to organisations and working with IT to support and maintain these. Good BI tools work best on a sound underlying information architecture and so there would need to also be close collaboration with Data Infrastructure staff within Data Operations & Technology as well as colleagues from Data Architecture and also Analytics & Insight.

Regular Reporting

If BI provides interactive capabilities to support decision making, Regular Reporting is about the provision of specific key reports to relevant parties on a periodic basis; daily, weekly, monthly etc. These may be burst out to people’s e-mail accounts, provided at some central location, or both. While this an area that is ideally automated, there will still be significant need for human monitoring and to support the inevitable changes.

Data Service

One of the things that any part of a Data Function will find itself doing on a very regular basis is crafting ad hoc data extracts for other departments, e.g. Marketing, Risk & Compliance etc. Sometimes such a need will be on an ongoing basis and a web-service or some other Data Integration mechanism will need to be set up. Rather than having this be something that is supported out of the general running costs of the Data Function, it makes sense to have a specific unit whose role is to fulfil these needs. Even so, there may be a need for queuing and prioritisation of requests

Data Infrastructure

This relates to the physical architecture of the data landscape (for various flavours of logical architectures, see Data Architecture in Part II). While some of the tasks here may be carried out by (or in collaboration with) IT, the Data Infrastructure team will be expert at the care and feeding of Hadoop and related technologies and have experience in the fine-tuning of Data Warehouses and Data Marts.

SWAT Team

While (as both mentioned above and also covered in Part III this article) some of the heavy lifting in data matters will be carried out by an organisation’s IT team and / or its external partners, the process for getting things done in this way can be slow, tortuous and expensive [6]. It is important that a Data Function has its own capability to make at least minor technological changes, or to build and deploy helpful data facilities without having to engage with the overall bureaucracy. The SWAT Team will have a small number of very capable and business-knowledgeable programmers, capable of quickly generating robust and functional code.

The second part of this piece picks up where I have left off here and first consider Data Architecture.

 Part I Part II Part III

Notes

 [1] I have added some functions that were absent in the previous one, mostly as they were not central to the points I was making in the previous article. [2] My trilogy on Formatting a Data / Information Strategy has the following parts: [3] While this theme runs through most of my writing, it is most explicitly referenced in the following three articles: [4] It should be noted that the relationship management described here is not the same as a Project Manager covering progress against plan. This is more of a two way conversation to ensure that the Data Function remains cognisant of stakeholder needs [5] Though of course sometimes one-off analyses have value on an ongoing basis and so need to be productionised. In such cases the Analytics & Insight team would work with the Data Operations & Technology team to achieve this. [6] No citation needed.

From: peterjamesthomas.com, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary

# The revised and expanded Data and Analytics Dictionary

Since its launch in August of this year, the peterjamesthomas.com Data and Analytics Dictionary has received a welcome amount of attention with various people on different social media platforms praising its usefulness, particularly as an introduction to the area. A number of people have made helpful suggestions for new entries or improvements to existing ones. I have also been rounding out the content with some more terms relating to each of Data Governance, Big Data and Data Warehousing. As a result, The Dictionary now has over 80 main entries (not including ones that simply refer the reader to another entry, such as Linear Regression, which redirects to Model).

The most recently added entries are as follows:

It is my intention to continue to revise this resource. Adding some more detail about Machine Learning and related areas is probably the next focus.

As ever, ideas for what to include next would be more than welcome (any suggestions used will also be acknowledged).

From: peterjamesthomas.com, home of The Data and Analytics Dictionary